Brief Overview

When James Watt, Scottish engineer of the 18th century, observed that steam as an economic force that replace the manual and animal force, began to develop the manufacturing of steam boilers could be used. Today, we have the biomass boilers, which are used in domestic as well as industrial areas. With the passing of the years, they were becoming an indispensable for every production process equipment and engineers were making them increasingly small, efficient and safe. The first boilers had the drawback that badly exploited the steam, so the first change they made was to introduce tubes, to increase the heating surface. If the tubes inside circulating gases or fire, they are classified them into firetube boilers, and if water that circulates is Watertube boilers are called. Then in 1844 were developed Lancashire boilers, composed by a long cloak of steel, usually 5 to 10 m. long, through which passed 2 tubes of large diameter called stoves and installing a combustion chamber at the entrance of each of them. This camera could be designed to burn gas, oil or coal.

The stoves were surrounded by water on the outside and the heat generated in the combustion chamber was transferred to the water. One disadvantage was that after repeated heating and cooling, are they impaired generating air infiltrations which front shot of the boiler, and at the same time decreasing its efficiency. About the year 1878 was designed type Cochran boiler whose main innovation was the introduction of horizontal tubes in a vertical cylindrical cloak through flanged tubular plates. This boiler was vertical and the smoke box was part of she bolted to one side. In 1934 the Cochran boilers reached an agreement to Kirke, inventor of the famous Sinuflo tubes, and launched a line of horizontal boilers recovering heat. They were very successful, ideal for generating steam from residual hot gases arising from the processes of industries gas and steel.

Timeout Action Interview

In October 1972, an airplane carrying 45 young people, many of them players of a rugby team, crashed in the Cordillera de los Andes. Twelve killed in the fall. The survivors had to endure extreme cold, thirst and hunger among other things. They tried to resist but his hope fell when he heard a radio, that the search had been abandoned. It was the 10th day after the accident. They endured very low temperatures (30 degrees below zero at night), avalanches of snow, then anguished by the continuos deaths of his companions, two boys decided to cross the huge mountains to reach Chile.

Thus on December 22, 1972, after having been for 73 days isolated, the world learns that there are 16 survivors. One of them is Ramon Sabella. Then Ramon Sabella was 21 years old, was a student of agricultural engineering and was on the plane for being friend of some components of the rugby team. Today it is an entrepreneur and shares their business with the facet of the speaker, giving lectures around the world. For me, the essence of your message can be summarized in this phrase: after the accident had a passive attitude: we expected to us rescue. The 10th day hear on the radio is leaving search, because we thought that was dead.

First reactions were total decay: we suffered, we cry, we feel abandoned after our attitude has changed and we decided to take action. We begin to act to try to save us ourselves. Our goal: live. (Ramon Sabella) Ramon, what you think it was the key that made that you were one of the survivors? They were many things, mainly the education that I received from my parents, Ramon and Martha. Known as Chiquito made us very independent and encouraged our power of adaptability. I was working and studying. It worked without need, because I liked to do things.

Judicial Review

In principle, we will initiate indicating that in doctrine and in practice exist two systems of control of the constitutionality of legal rules, this depending on the organ to which the Constitution order function. It is so we have the fuzzy control, because a conflict of one legal against a constitutional norm has to prefer the latter, and this work is commissioned by any operator of law, for a respectable of doctrine sector in charge only to the judges, and control concentrated, because that work is vested in a single specialised body, who exercised control of the constitutionality of laws. Background in its origins both institutions differ in time and in space, i.e. in places where originally, at least according to some studies conclude, they have been applied. The so-called diffuse system as a system of revision of the Constitution also known as Judicial Review dates its beginnings to resolved by Judge Marshall in the case Marbury vs. Madison in the year 1803 in the United States of America, and where it was resolved that all judges and all courts must decide in individual cases that are submitted to it in accordance with the Constitution inaplicando you law unconstitutional, highlighting in the resolved that such work corresponds to all courts and judges, not limited to one in particular. The concentrated system, abstract or merely European, dates its origins to the creative work of Hans Kelsen in 1920, and whose major feature is that it leaves the control of constitutionality in the hands of a single body or ad hoc tribunal.

These two large pure models of control of constitutionality over time were scattering in different countries, keeping purely concentrates, or purely diffuse, but also true is that in many other countries was developing a model mixed or blended by both pure systems matter of comment. And Latin America in a peculiar manner and from the second half of the 20th century was developing the fusion of both pure systems, reaching apply this dual model in countries such as Bolivia, Mexico, Brazil, and Peru among others. Characteristics the Control diffuse of the constitutionality of laws, as already stated, is any organs jurisdiction, regardless of the specialty; the Act continues to be valid only inaplicara to the contentious case.

Cheap Hotels

Cheap hotels in Madrid offer is probably one of the biggest and best in the world. For many years, Spain attaches enormous importance to its tourist industry. And that is reflected in multiple accommodation options offered by the country, with its capital Madrid to the head. Cheap hotels in Madrid do not offer luxuries, but are made strong with its location, usually centrally located and close to the main tourist attractions. Seeing him thus, cheap hotels in Madrid offer varied luxuries: Prado Museum, La Gran Via, La Puerta del Sol, the bear and the Madrono, fountain of Cibeles, the neighborhood of Chueca. Many of the cheap hotels in Madrid are located in old renovated buildings, which generates a charming fusion of nostalgia, technology, Internet and Art Deco.

You can also choose constructions more modern, generally close to the Malasana neighbourhood, in intense nightlife. The Spanish Youth Hostels network has 182 registered establishments. Among them, many cheap hotels in Madrid. OR, more exactly, hostels with rooms, bathroom and kitchen shared, truly economic, from 13 euros the night with breakfast and taxes included. Simply keep in mind that, in the majority, they are not allowed more than seven nights stays. For knowing the complete offer of one or two star cheap hotels in Madrid, best thing is to go to virtual search engines, like This type of site not only allows you to see pictures of the establishment and read user reviews, but it also offers the possibility of booking a stay in form online.

And many times, offers packages, even promote u offerings that further enhance the rate of the chosen hotel. Cheap hotels in Madrid of a star, as opposed to what may happen in other capitals, guarantee the Traveller accommodation no-frills but clean and equipped with all the essential services. Most of the hotels in this category has a private bathroom, but is not bad idea to consult in advance if there will be sharing bathroom or not. Hotels two stars, for its part, without ceasing to be economic, incorporate some services and interesting details of comfort. Among them, air conditioning, balcony, satellite TV, dryer of hair. Some even up to admit pets in rooms, upon payment of a small additional charge. And lately, most of the cheap hotels in Madrid has begun to also incorporate service connection Internet free wi fi.

The Court

Now, to answer the first comment I’ll review concept by concept that wields in its foundation; clarifying that recognized when who writes me does so with intelligence, because even when shows be on the sidewalk in front of my opinions, does so with respect. Let’s see then what is accuses me: said me that I’m confused. Now I with the same right and the same respect he directed to me, I can say exactly the same thing to this reader: dear friend you are confused. Now to analyse the position of each party should be in a neutral position, leaving aside the fanaticism and sentimentality and analyze two positions to see who is right. What is the truth of this player or that I esgrimo? To demonstrate the above still analyzing the criticism that makes me: this man tells me that not angry me by telling me that the law of attraction is ecumenist. And I reply him not me anger, nor I got angry when they say that it is a Satanist. If that is why each one the adjective you want, can add you because if it is by revile can accuse a theory in a thousand different ways.

I.e. by my you can call the law of attraction as they please, the subject does not pass by there, but if used to do good or to do evil. There are fanatical in many religions that covered in his texts sacred kill people in the name of God and the Christians (I’m Christian) are no exception. In the middle ages burned alive women accused witches and these acts were supported by the Church. (). The Court of the Inquisition of the Catholic Church in the 17TH century condemned Galileo Galilei, for his claims that the Earth is not the center of the Solar system, but it revolves around the Sun.